Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation of humans ,caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and some wild carnivores like foxes are definitive hosts, harboring worms in their intestine. Eggs are passed in the feces and eaten by the intermediate hosts, and larvae encyst in the liver, lungs, and other organs.
Hydatid disease of the liver is still endemic in certain parts of the world. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and Indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) are the most important diagnostic tools. Surgery is still the treatment of choice and can be performed by the conventional or laparoscopic approach.
Albendazole 10 mg/kg/day for 3–6 weeks before surgery should be given to sterilise the cyst. During surgery special care should be taken not to spill the hydatid fluid. Precautions include packing the area with hypertonic saline (scolicidal) soaked sponges, aspiration of some of the hydatid fluid to reduce the tension, instillation of a scolicidal agent inside the cyst cavity.
The cyst is usually removed carefully with daughter cysts and scolioses. The residual peri cystic cavity can be partially excised, border of the cyst marsupialized and the the surface is covered with omentum (omentoplasty).After the surgery patient should continue albendazole for at least 6–8 weeks .