Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe abdominal pain.
In 90% of cases, acute cholecystitis is caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. Other causes include infection (acalcular cholecystitis) and rarely tumors of the gallbladder.
Acute cholecystitis occurs when bile becomes trapped in the gallbladder. The buildup of bile causes irritation and pressure in the gallbladder. This can lead to infection and a hole (perforation) , Empyema (pus in the gallbladder),Gangrene (tissue death) of the gallbladder and Peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdomen), which is a serious condition.
Clinically patient will be ill looking, tenderness in the right side of upper abdomen .Abdominal ultrasound will show thick wall, distended gall bladder with fluid accumulation around the gallbladder or in the abdomen. Complete blood count (CBC) may show a higher than normal white blood cell count.
Treatment . Although cholecystitis may clear up on its own, surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) is usually needed. Histopathological examination of the gall bladder to be done after surgery .